Lesson 7: Why have you cried?

We will handle the past perfect form of verbs.
The words for {why} and {how} will be given.
The polite form for {you} will be given.
Some more sounds.
We'll count from 11 to 19.
We start with an experiment: exercises! You can try them on paper and then check the answers immediatly. Pardon the somewhat crude interface. Also there will be more in future lessons.

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Some vowels, consonants or diphthongs which are used rarely and mostly in words originating from foreign words:

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The Dutch word for {why} is "waarom", the word for {how} is "hoe".
There used the same as "waar" and "wat".
The next numbers are:

The polite form for {you} is "u". It is used for both the singular and plural form. It uses the verb form of "hij"/"zij"/"het", but for "zijn" usually the "jij" form ("bent") is used. Whether the singular or plural form is used, must be deduced from the context.
The polite form is used when talking to older people or people higher in the hierarchy, ie. people who need respect. There may come a moment when you start using the "jij" or "jullie" form when you get to know people better.

It is written with a capital "U" when talking to divine and god-like creatures.
Today's society (especially the youth) is using the polite form less and less (here talks an old dude :-).
The regular form of the past perfect form is the STEM followed by "t" or "d" and prefixed with "ge", ie. geSTEMt or geSTEMd. The "t" or "d" depends on the "fokschaap" rule from lesson 6.
The "ge" is omitted for verbs of which the STEM starts with one of the sylables: "ge", "be", "her", "ver" or "ont" (maybe I missed one). So "geven" isn't one of them, since the stem is "geef" (or "gev" if you want), so the first sylable is "geef", not "ge".
The "ge" prefix is also handled diferently for compound verbs starting with a preposition (these will be handled in a later lesson).
Just like in English an auxilary verb is used, this can be either "zijn" or "hebben". The first one is used when the subject is the direct object of the sentence (the victim so to speak), the latter is used when the subject 'does' the action. Like in English: {I am struck} and {I have struck}, or {I am killed} and {I have killed}.
In most cases "hebben" is used, and for "zijn" only "zijn" is used.

So (using last "d" or "t" at random):

The irregular verbs (which are of course the most used) all use the "ge" prefix (except for the exceptions given above), but the STEM and "t/d" part may change.
Unlike in English the auxilary verb and the participle (the "geSTEMt" word) can be separated by some other words, like the object.
Verbs we defined in previous lessons:

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11, elf
(also pronounced as elf)
12, twaalf (also pronounced as twaalf) twelve
13, dertien thirteen
14, veertien fourteen
15, vijftien fifteen
16, zestien sixteen
17, zeventien seventeen
18, achttien eightteen
19, negentien nineteen
beneden below, beneath, under, downstairs
boven above, over (upwards of), upstairs
douchen to take a shower [douch, doucht, douchen, douchte, douchten, gedoucht]
gang passage of a house (and some other uses) [de, (m), gangen]
gebeuren to happen, occur, come about [gebeur, gebeuren, gebeurden, (zijn) gebeurd (no extra "ge")]
hal hall [de hallen]
hoe how
huilen to cry [huil, huilen, huilde, huilden, gehuild]
kast cupboard, wardrobe, chest, cabinet [de, kasten]
komen to come (lotsa other uses, we'll come (no pun intented) to them later) [kom, komen, kwam, kwamen, (zijn) gekomen]
lamp lamp [de, lampen]
les lesson [de, lessen]
met with
ontdekken to discover, find out [ontdek, ontdekken, ontdekten, ontdekt (no extra "ge")]
radio radio [de, (m), radio's]
tafel table [de, tafels]
thuis at home, home
tv tv [de, (v), tv's]
u you (polite form, singular and plural)
waarom why

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Waarom heb je gehuild? Why have you cried?
Hoe heb je dat gedaan? How have you done that?
Wat is er gebeurd? What has happened?
Ruud, kom je naar beneden? Ruud, are you coming downstairs?
Waarom bent u in de hal geweest? Why have you been in the hall?
Ik heb moeder elf boeken gegeven. I have given mother eleven books.
De hond heeft de kat onder de tafel ontdekt. The dog has discovered the cat below the table.

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Translate into Dutch/English (select answer to view it):

We walked to the house.We liepen naar het huis.
Why are you at home, mother?Waarom bent u thuis, moeder?
De kinderen aten op de bank.The children ate on the couch.
Wij hebben veertien auto's gehad.We have had fourteen cars.
Hoe kom ik naar beneden?How do I get downstairs?
Jullie kijken door het raam naar de kat.You are looking through the window at the cat.