Les negen: My small mistake

We'll get to adjectives and the possesive pronouns.
More exercises! You can try them on paper and then check the answers immediatly.

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Some vowels, consonants or diphthongs which are used rarely and mostly in words originating from foreign words:

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Adjectives describe a subject or object. They can proceed the noun or follow a verb describing the subject or object. They are used almost the same as in English.
Like: {A red house is big} - Een rood huis is groot.
Both {red} and {big} are adjectives as are "rood" en "groot".

An exception (you've been waiting for it) is when the adjective is placed between the definite article ("de" and "het") and a noun, or between the undefinite article ("een") and a non-neutral noun (which get the "de" article).
The adjective is then followed by "e", and the usual rules of long vowels changing into short vowels ("aa", "ee", "oo" and "uu" into "a", "e", "o" and "u" rsp) and the doubling of the ending single consonant when the last sylable has a short vowel and ends with a single consonant ("a", "e", "i", "o" and "u"), and "s" changing into "z" and "f" into "v".
So: Het rode huis, de dikke man, een groot huis, een grote man, een vies huis, het vieze huis.

This is for the single nouns. Before plural nouns the "e" rule always applies.
So: De rode huizen, de dikke mannen, grote huizen, grote mannen.

The past perfect of verbs (the "ge" verb) may also be used as adjective, like in English.
So: {the kissed woman} - de gekuste vrouw.

The possesive pronouns are as follows in Dutch:

Note that "ons" (as an exception) follows the adjective rule, so: ons huis, onze moeder.
Also note that "mijn" is often abbreviated to m'n, "zijn" to z'n, "haar" to 'r. These forms are usually used in the non-stressed form.
Also also note that "mij" has a non-stressed form me, and "jou" the non-stressed form je.
So: {It's YOUR mother} - Het is jouw moeder.
{It's your mother} - Het is je moeder.
{The mother of you} - De moeder van jou.

An (almost accepted) error made by many Dutch people is to use "hun" instead of "zij" (plural) in the subject form, like:
"Hun zijn ziek." instead of "Zij zijn ziek."
Don't do it yourself, but be prepared.

Finally another exception: after the pronouns "aan" and "voor", when they are used in a directional, cooperative way (rsp. to and for), "hun" is replaced by hen". This is also valid when the pronoun "aan" is left out, but you could insert it (like the English {to} in: I gave it (to) them).
So: Ik praat tegen hun. Ik geef het boek aan hen. Ik geef hen het boek. Het is voor hen.

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mij me
mijn mine, also the mine [de, mijnen]
jou you (possesive)
hem him
zijn his
haar her, hers, also hair [de and het, haren]
het it (possesive)
het's its
ons us, ours, also 100-gram ounce (official no longer used, but still present in spoken language) [het, onsen, onzen]
jullie you, yours (plural, possesive)
hun them, their
hen them (after "aan" or "voor" in directional, cooperative way)
garage garage [de (v), garages]
tuin garden [de (m), tuinen]
balkon balcony [het, balkons]
computer computer (watch the special 'pu' pronounciation) [de (m), computers]
bureau desk, bureau, (police) station, (travel) agency [het, bureaus]
rood red< [rode]
blauw blue [blauwe]
groen green [groene]
geel yellow [gele]
zwart black [zwarte]
wit white [witte]
grijs grey [grijze]
alle all (all objects)
sommige some (some objects)
kleur color [de, kleuren]
brief letter [de (m), brieven]
bloem flower [de, bloemen]
brood bread [het, broden]
mens human [de (m), mensen]
fluisteren to whisper [fluister, fluisteren, fluisterde(n), gefluisterd]
typen to type [typ, typen, typte(n), getypt]
verven to paint (a house, not a painting) [verf, verven, verfde(n), geverfd]
leren to learn [leer, leren, leerde(n), geleerd]

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Kunt u mij het boek geven? - Can you give me the book?
Hij heeft het gele huis rood geverfd. - He has painted the yellow house red.
Zij typte een brief aan hen op mijn computer. - She typed a letter to them on my computer.
In de tuin staan rode, gele en blauwe bloemen. - In the garden are (stand) red, yellow and blue flowers.
Jullie brood is voor jullie, hun brood is voor hen, en mijn brood is voor mij. - Your bread is for you, their bread is for them, and my bread is for me.
Alle kinderen zijn lief. - All children are sweet.

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Translate into Dutch/English (select answer to view it):

Waarom ligt mamma niet in bed?Why doesn't mummy lie in bed?
Sommige mensen zijn groot.Some people are tall (big).
Alle witte bloemen waren klein.All white flowers were small.
Ik heb de Nederlandse taal geleerd.I have learned the Dutch language.
De grijze, grote computer staat op het bureau van vader.The grey, small computer stands on the desk of father.
De rode pennen zijn van mij, niet van jou.The red pencils are mine, not yours.
Have you seen their house?Heb je hun huis gezien?
We gave some yellow letters to them.We gaven enkele gele brieven aan hen.
All breads lay in the cupboard.Alle broden lagen in de kast.

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