Les tien: 1999

Some more about adjectives.
We'll learn all about the date.
Some greetings will be made.
More exercises! You can try them on paper and then check the answers immediatly.

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Some more diphthongs:

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In the previous lesson we handled adjectives, like "rood" and "rode". Some word having a vowel or diphthongs followed by "de", like "rode" can also be written and pronounced using the "i" letter instead of the "d", and therefor transform to the "OOI" sound instead of the "OO", like "rooie".
Or "goeie" instead of "goede".
Or "raaien" instead of "raden" (very very very slang).
Note that this is not proper 'schoolbook' Dutch, more like slang, although the word "goeie" is very frequently used by everyone (but still can't be found in dictionaries). We'll note the alternatives in future vocabulary lists when appropiate.

In a previous lesson we noted that the past perfect verb (the "ge" form, like "geverfd") can also be used as an adjective, much like in English (the "ed" form like {painted}).
In English the "ing" form (like {talking}) can also be used as an adjective, having an active meaning; the subject is currently performing the task (talking in the case of the example).
The Dutch form of this construction is the full verb, like "praten" followed by a "d". This again follows the "e" form as handled before, like: "de pratende man" {the talking man}.
Because a date also contains a year, we'll handle the numbers in the range 100 - 999999 first. The word for 100 is "honderd".
The word for 1000 is "duizend".
The word for X00 (X is 2 - 9) is X concatenated with "honderd", like "tweehonderd". If X is 1, you can leave out "een" unless you really really want to stress it.
The word for XX000 (XX is 2 - 99) is XX concatenated with "duizend", like "drieduizend". If XX is 1, you can leave out "een" unless you want to stress it.
You can also use the XY00 form (XY is 11 - 99), but not when Y is 0. You concatenate XY with "honderd", like "zevenentachtighonderd".
The word for XXZZ (XX is 1 - 99, y is not 0) is XX (if not 1), optionally concatenated with the word "en", concatenated with "honderd", concatenated with the ZZ word like "vierhonderdvijfendertig" or like "honderdentweeëntwintig".
The word for XXXZZZ (XXX is 2 - 999) is the XXX word concatenated with "duizend", optionally concatenated with the word "en", concatenated with the ZZZ word if not 0. like "driehonderdeenentwintigduizendvierhonderdzesenzestig".
When pronouncing years in a date (so not as in an interval, e.g. the number of years between two occurences) we can leave out the "honderd" and "en" part.
So the current years are "negentiennegenennegentig", "tweeduizend" en "tweeduizendeen", and it's "negentienhonderdnegentig" years ago.
You may have noticed that I use 3 years as the current years, I hope this course is about finished in 2002 :-)

Now the months. They are:

As you can see, they're very much alike in English and Dutch, propably because they origin from the Latin language (or Greek or whatever). We don't use capitals with the month names.
Instead of saying MONTH DAY, like in English, e.g. {November the 3rd}, we use DAY MONTH in Dutch, like "3 November".
A complete date will have the format DAY MONTH YEAR, like "28 februari 2001".
We usually also use this sequence in the 'digit-only' form, like: "22/07/61" or "28/02/2001".

Now the weekdays. They are:

Again, no capitals. We'll give ordinal numbers, like {Friday the 13th} in another lesson.

Days and part of the days. They are:

The "'s" word is an abbreviation of an old Dutch word "des", meaning {of the}, which is almost never used anymore in the full form.
When a sentence starts with a "'", like "'s" or "'t" the letter following the quote is lower cased, the following letter will be upper cased, like "'s Morgens", or "'t Huis".
This is the original version of the day-part words. As you may have guessed we have come another weird thing in the Dutch language. Most people use the word morgen instead of ochtend, although that has an altogether different meaning originally.
This brings us to the more popular:
Also you may have noticed that the word "middag" {noon} is brutally misused in the meaning of "namiddag" {afternoon}. The latter word being rarely used and then usually in the meaning of: the latter part of the afternoon.
Because of this misusage we lack a word which actually means {noon}. To compensate we came up with the illogical sentence "tussen de middag" {between the noon}, which actually makes no sense.

When using words or phrases that have a meaning of date or time, it is placed as close to the verb as possible, opposite to the English, like:
"Morgen gaan we naar huis." {Tomorrow we are going home.}
"We gaan morgen naar huis." {We are going home, tomorrow.}
Some greetings which are very frequently used are:

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honderd hundred [het, honderden]
duizend thousand [het, duizenden]
januari January [de (m)]
februari February [de (m)]
maart March [de (m)]
april April [de (m)]
mei May [de (m)]
juni June [de (m)]
juli July [de (m)]
augustus August [de (m)]
september September [de (m)]
oktober October [de (m)]
november November [de (m)]
december December [de (m)]
maandag Monday [de (m), maandagen]
dinsdag Tuesday [de (m), dinsdagen]
woensdag Wednesday [de (m), woensdagen]
donderdag Thursday [de (m), donderdagen]
vrijdag Friday [de (m), vrijdagen]
zaterdag Saturday [de (m), zaterdagen]
zondag Sunday [de (m), zondagen]
vandaag today
morgen tomorrow, morning [de (m), morgens]
gisteren yesterday
eergisteren day before yesterday
ochtend morning [de (m), ochtenden]
middag noon [de (m), middagen]
namiddag afternoo [de (m), namiddagen]n
avond evening [de (m), avonden]
nacht night [de (m), nachten]
dag day, 24 hours [de (m), dagen]
vanochtend this morning
vanmiddag this afternoon
vanavond this evening, tonight
vannacht tonight or last night
's ochtends in the morning
's middags in the afternoon
's avonds in the evening, in the night
's nachts in the night
vanmorgen this morning
's morgens in the morning
tussen de middag noon (literally: between the noon)
hallo hello
hoi hi
dag bye
doei bye
doeg bye
goedemorgen good morning
goeiemorgen good morning
goedemiddag good afternoon
goedenavond good evening/night
goedenacht good night
alstublieft here you are, if you please, yes please
alsjeblieft here you are, if you please, yes please
goed good, correct, kind, well, goodly [goede, goeie]
tot until
iets something
niets nothing
altijd always
geen no, none
dank thanks [de (m), danken]
danken to thank [dank, dankt, danken, dankte(n), gedankt]
bedanken to thank, to return thanks, to decline [bedank, bedankt, bedanken, bedankte(n), bedankt (no ge)]
tot ziens (see you)
hoe gaat het? how are you doing? (literally: how are you going?)
hoe gaat het met je? how are you doing? (literally: how is it going with you?)
dank u thank you
dank je thank you
bedankt thanks
dank u wel thank you kindly
dank u zeer thank you very much
geen dank you're welcome (literally: no thanks (needed))
doen to do, work,
to put (it one's pocket),
to do (one's hair, a room),
to make (a promise), and some more [doe, doet, doen, deed, deden, gedaan]
mogen to be allowed, be permitted, may, or to like [mag, mag, mogen, mocht(en), gemogen]
groeien to grow [groei, groeit, groeien, groeide(n), (zijn) gegroeid]
graag with pleasure, gladly, readily, willingly
graag gedaan you're welcome (literally: done with pleasure)

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Is er gisteren iets gebeurd? Has something happened yesterday?
Hallo, hoe gaat het met je? Hello, how are you doing?
Met mij gaat het goed, dank je. I'm doing fine, thanks. (With me it's going good)
's Morgens loopt hij altijd naar de garage. In the morning he always walks to the garage.
Het is vandaag 31 december 1999. Today it is December the 3rd, 1999.
We deden het graag voor je. We did it gladly for you.
Mag ik u bedanken voor vanmorgen? May I thank you for this morning?

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Translate into Dutch/English (select answer to view it):

Conjugate: to be.ik ben, jij bent, hij/zij/het is, u bent/is, zijn, was, waren, geweest
Hallo, hoe gaat het met je?Hello, how are you?
Waar was je gisteren?Where were you, yesterday?
Ik ben morgen en overmorgen niet thuis.I'm not home tomorrow and the day after tomorrow.
I have worked on my computer this morning.Ik heb vanmorgen op mijn computer gewerkt.
In the morning I eat with my wife and children.'s Morgens eet ik met mijn vrouw en kinderen.
On the 1st of April we always laugh.Op 1 april lachen we altijd.
List: the weekdaysmaandag, dinsdag, woensdag, donderdag, vrijdag, zaterdag, zondag
Conjugate: to have.ik heb, jij hebt, hij/zij/het heeft, u hebt/heeft, hebben, had, hadden, gehad

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